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《电工材料》2013年第三期目录

研究 分析

Bi掺杂AgSnO2(12)电接触材料的制备及性能研究—乔秀清1,杨辉1,3,陈乐生2,3,吴新合2,穆成法2,樊先平1,3,申乾宏1,3(1. 浙江大学材料科学与工程学系,杭州310027;2. 温州宏丰电工合金股份有限公司,浙江温州325603;3. 浙江加州国际纳米技术研究院,杭州310029)

摘要:将采用化学沉淀法制备的Bi 掺杂量为25%(原子分数)的SnO2纳米颗粒(Sn0.75Bi0.25O2)作为增强相,借助于粉末冶金法制备了AgSnO2(12)电接触材料,分析了Bi 元素掺杂对电接触材料性能的影响。试验结果表明,Sn0.75Bi0.25O2纳米颗粒增强的AgSnO2(12)电接触材料组织结构均匀,密度、硬度高,导电性好。电性能试验表明,Sn0.75Bi0.25O2纳米颗粒增强材料的燃弧时间短、能量低,接触电阻低且稳定,抗电弧侵蚀能力强。

Preparation and Properties of Bi Doped AgSnO2(12)Electrical Contact Materials—QIAO Xiu-qing1, YANG Hui1,3, CHEN Le-sheng2,3, WU Xin-he2,MU Cheng-fa2, FAN Xian-ping1,3, SHEN Qian-hong1,3(1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang UniversityHangzhou 310027, China; 2. Wenzhou Hongfeng Electrical Alloy Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Wenzhou325603, China; 3. Zhejiang-California International NanoSystems Institute, Hangzhou 310029, China)

Abstract:The 25% Bi doped SnO2 nano-particles(Sn0.75Bi0.25O2) were used as the reinforced phaseto prepare Ag/SnO2(12) electrical contact materials by powder metallurgy(P/M) technology. Theeffect of Bi element on the properties of Ag/SnO2(12) electrical contact materials was analyzed.Results show that Ag/SnO2(12) electrical contact materials with Sn0.75Bi0.25O2 nano-particles exhibituniform structure, higher density and hardness and greater conductivity. The electrical propertyexperiment results show that the Ag/SnO2(12) electrical contact materials have advantages, includingthe short arc time, the low arc energy, the lower and more stable contact resistance and the betteranti-arc erosion ability.

水雾化法AgSnO2(12)粉末压坯烧结工艺探讨—张天锦,李镇鹏,廖丽丽,王振宇,刘辉,白娅玲(桂林电器科学研究院有限公司,广西桂林541004)

摘要:采用水雾化法制备掺杂Bi、Cu元素的AgSn合金粉末,氧化后在不同单位成型压力条件下成型,然后在马弗炉中分别于880、900、920 ℃下烧结2、4、6 h,考察了单位成型压力、烧结温度和烧结时间对材料致密度和硬度的影响。结果表明,提高单位成型压力和烧结温度、增加烧结时间可以提高材料的致密度和硬度。

Sintering Process of AgSnO2(12) Powder Compactby Water Atomization—ZHANG Tian-jin, LI Zhen-peng, LIAO Li-li, WANG Zhen-yu, LIU Hui, BAI Ya-ling(Guilin Electrical Equipment Scientific Research Institnte Co., Ltd., Guangxi Guilin 541004, China)

Abstract:The Bi and Cu doped AgSn alloy powders were prepared by water atomization. The powderswere compacted under various unit compacting pressure after oxidation, and then sintered two hours, fourhours and six hours respectively at 880 ℃ , 900 ℃ and 920 ℃ in muffle furnace. Effects of unitcompacting pressure, sintering temperature and sintering time on the density and the hardness of the AgSnO2 composite materials were studied. Results show that the density and the hardness of the materials will be improved with the increase of unit compacting pressure, sintering temperature and sintering time.
AgSn合金粉体粒度对预氧化显微组织的影响—李杰,颜小芳,柏小平,鲁菲,刘立强,翁桅,李素华(福达合金材料股份有限公司,浙江温州325025)

摘要:考察了粒度分别为15、116、264 μm的AgSn 合金粉体对预氧化组织的影响,并比较了15 μm和264 μm粉体经预氧化挤压后的性能和显微组织。结果表明,粉体粒度为15 μm时,氧化主要发生在颗粒边缘,随着粒度增加,颗粒周围形成了氧化层,甚至出现了氧化物聚集;15 μm粉体挤压后氧化物颗粒分布均匀,而264 μm雾化粉挤压后存在明显的氧化物富集区和贫氧化物区,导致后者的硬度、延伸率略低于前者;较大粒度的AgSn 粉体(116 μm和264 μm)出现氧化层的原因是氧化物膜层松动或开裂,氧化层中出现了合金成分,反应又进入快速反应阶段,形成了一层氧化物层。

Effect of Particle Size of AgSn Alloy Powders on Pre-oxidation Microstructure—LI Jie, YAN Xiao-fang, BAI Xiao-ping, LU Fei, LIU Li-qiang, WENG Wei, LI Su-hua (Fuda Alloy Materials Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Wenzhou 325025, China)

Abstract:Effects of different particle size of AgSn alloy powders(15 μm,116 μm,264 μm respectively) on pre-oxidation microstrucure were investigated. Besides, properties and microstructure of the powders of 15 μm and 264 μm after extrusion were compared. It is shown that oxidation mainly occures at the edge of the particles when the particle size is 15 μm. The oxide layer forms around the particles as the particle size increases, even oxide aggregates appeares when the particle size increases to 264 μm. After extrusion, oxide particles distribute uniformly when the particle size is 15 μm, while the obvious oxide-rich and oxide-depleted zones are observed as the powder size increases to 264 μm. As a result, hardness and elongation of the latter one are slightly lower than the former one. When the particle size is more than 116 μm, the oxide film maybe loose or cracks appeare in the oxide film during the internal oxidation stage, thus rapid reaction will take place and oxide layer is formed.

(Tb1-xRx)0.2Pr0.8(Fe0.4Co0.6)1.88C0.05(R为Ho,Dy)合金结构和磁致伸缩性能的研究—高新强1,顾正飞1,2,马垒1(1.桂林电子科技大学材料科学与工程学院,广西桂林541004;2.广西信息材料重点实验室,广西桂林541004)

摘要:采用电弧熔炼浇铸法和退火处理制备了系列合金A和B:A为(Tb1-xHox)0.2Pr0.8(Fe0.4Co0.6)1.88C0.05 (x=0,0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8,1)合金,B 为(Tb0.2DyxHo0.8-x)0.2Pr0.8(Fe0.4Co0.6)1.88C0.05(x=0,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5)合金。X射线衍射(XRD)分析表明,合金均具有单一的立方Laves相结构。对于合金A,当x=0.8时,磁晶各向异性较小,易磁化方向为<111>方向,合金的磁致伸缩系数达到极大值(504×10-6);对于合金B,当x=0.3时,合金的磁致伸缩系数达到极大值(565.7×10-6)。

Study on Structure and Magnetostrictionof Alloys (Tb1-xRx)0.2Pr0.8(Fe0.4Co0.6)1.88C0.05(R=Ho,Dy)—GAO Xin-qiang1, GU Zheng-fei1,2 , MA Lei1(1.School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Scinceand Technology, Guangxi Guilin 541004, China;2.Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guangxi Guilin 541004, China)

Abstract:Series of alloys A:(Tb1-xHox)0.2Pr0.8(Fe0.4Co0.6)1.88C0.05(x=0,0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8,1) and B:(Tb0.2Dyx-
Ho0.8-x)0.2Pr0.8(Fe0.4Co0.6)1.88C0.05(x=0,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5) were prepared by arc-melting top casting method and subsequent annealing. The XRD analysis shows that a single cubic Laves phase forms both in the alloys A and B. For the alloys A, magnetic measurements indicate that the magnetostriction,λa, increases with the increase of the Ho content, and gets to the maximum value when x=0.8 and then the λa decreases. The anisotropy of the compound is the minimum and the direction of easy magnetization is <111> when x=0.8. Similarly, for alloy B, the λa gets to the maximum when x=
0.3.

氧硫交互作用对硅钢中非金属夹杂物生成的影响—宗震宇a,张峰b(宝山钢铁股份有限公司a. 炼钢厂;b. 硅钢部,上海201900)

摘要:结合工业化生产的无取向硅钢,探讨了氧硫交互作用对钢中夹杂物生成的影响。借助非水溶液电解+扫描电镜法,研究了不同O、S 含量下钢中夹杂物的变化规律。结果表明,本实验条件下,提高O含量、降低S含量,会劣化热轧组织再结晶效果。在劣化效果上,O的作用大于S;低Si、无Al 硅钢中,应尽可能降低O含量、适当提高S 含量,以粗化钢中微细夹杂物,减少尺寸小于1.0 μm的夹杂物的数量;O、S 含量与钢中夹杂物数量不具有关联性。生产过程中,不仅要严格控制O、S 含量,还要严格控制生产工艺,以免生成较多的有害夹杂物。

Effects of Interaction Between Oxygen and Sulfueron Formation of Non-metallic Inclusions of Silicon Steel—ZONG Zhen-yua, ZHANG Fengb(a. Steelmaking Plant; b. Silicon Steel Department,Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201900, China)

Abstract:Based on the industrial production of non-oriented silicon steel, the effects of interaction
between oxygen and sulfur on the formation of inclusions were discussed. The change of non-metallic
inclusions in steel sheets was investigated by means of electrolysis with non-aqueous solution
under different oxygen and sulfur content. Results show that the recrystallization microstructure of
hot rolled sheets will be deteriorated with the increase of oxygen content and the decrease of sulfur
content. The deterioration effect of oxygen is more obvious than sulfur. For silicon steel with
little Si and no Al, the oxygen and sulfur content should be strictly controlled in order to coarsen
the micro inclusions and decrease the inclusions with size less than 1.0μm. Furthermore, the oxygen
and sulfur content are not proportional to the quantity of non-metallic inclusions. In order to
decrease the formation of harmful inclusions, not only the oxygen and sulfur content, but also the
technical parameters should be strictly controlled during the manufacturing process.

固相烧结反应法合成MgB2超导材料—周秀娟,刘心宇(桂林电子科技大学,广西桂林541004)

摘要:分别在流动Ar 和真空的密封石英玻璃管条件下制备了MgB2超导材料。研究了固相烧结反应合成Mg-B 过程中相的变化以及粉末配比对合成样品纯度的影响,并讨论了烧结工艺对合成MgB2的影响。

MgB2 Superconductive Materials Synthesizedby Solid Sintering Reaction—ZHOU Xiu-juan, LIU Xin-yu(Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guangxi Guilin 541004, China)

Abstract:The MgB2 superconductive material was synthesized by means of solid sintering reaction
under the flowing argon atmosphere and in the vacuum sealed quartz glass tube respectively. The
effects of the phase change in Mg-B synthetic process and the ratio of powder on synthetic samples
purity in solid sintering reaction were investigated in this paper. Besides, the effects of sintering
technology on synthetic process of MgB2 were also discussed.

综述

触点材料微动磨损特性测试分析方法现状—任万滨1,王鹏1,崔黎2(1.哈尔滨工业大学军用电器研究所,哈尔滨150001;2.桂林航天电子有限公司,广西桂林541002)

摘要:触点材料微动特性是电连接器类机电元件的重要特性之一。微动失效机理复杂多样,影响因素众多,近年来一直是电接触领域的研究热点。本文总结了近年来国内外关于微动磨损特性的测试分析方法,主要涉及微动机构的设计、接触电阻的测量及材料分析测试等,可为微动磨损失效机理的确定、触点基体材料和镀层材料的优选及制备工艺的优化提供借鉴和参考。

Status of Test Methodsfor Contact Materials Fretting Wear Characteristics—REN Wan-bin1, WANG Peng1, CUI Li2(1. Military Electrical Apparatus Research Inst., Harbin Institute of Technology,Harbin 150001, China; 2. Guilin Aerospace Electronics Ltd., Co., Guangxi Guilin, 541002, China)

Abstract:The fretting wear of contact materials is one of the most important characteristics of the
electromechanical components like electrical connectors. The failure mechanism, influenced by
many factors, is very complicated, making it the research focus in electrical contact fields recently.
This paper summarizes the testing analysis methods of the fretting wear characteristics in recent
years, involving the design of fretting wear devices, the measurement of contact resistance and the
testing analysis methods for contact materials. Thus it can provide references for the determination
of fretting wear failure mechanism, the best combination of substrate materials and coating
materials and the optimization of manufacturing processes.

气氛对继电器触头性能影响研究综述—李晨,李震彪(华中科技大学强电磁工程与新技术国家重点实验室,武汉430074)

摘要:研究了N2、SF6、H2等气体对接触电阻、触头侵蚀量及燃弧时间的影响,分析了气压变化对触头燃弧时间的影响规律,介绍了部分有机物对触头电寿命的影响。

Survey on Influences of Atmosphereon Contact Performance of Relays—LI Chen, LI Zhen-biao(State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology,Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China)

Abstract:In this paper, the impacts of nitrogen, sulfur hexafluoride, hydrogen and some other gases
on contact resistance, contact erosion and arc duration were researched. Besides, the influencing
characteristics of variable gas pressure on arc duration were analyzed. The influences of several
organics on electrical life of contacts were presented.

国际电接触会议的起源和发展—崔玉胜(美泰乐科技(苏州)有限公司,苏州150001)

摘要:国际电接触会议是每两年一次在美洲、亚洲和欧洲轮流举办的电接触领域内影响范围最广的国际会议。该会议从1961 年创办以来已举办了26 届,最近的一次会议于2012 年5 月在北京成功举办。本文介绍了国际电接触会议的起源、发展历程和相关统计信息,探讨了会议成功举办和延续的经验。

Origin and Development of International Conferenceon Electrical Contacts—CUI Yu-sheng(Metalor Technology (Suzhou) Ltd., Suzhou 215123, China)

Abstract:The international conference on electrical contacts, held biennially in North America,
Europe and Asia since 1961, is one of the most influenced symposiums in electrical contacts field.
In 2012, the conference has just accomplished its 26th meeting in Beijing, China. Origin and
development of international conference on electrical contacts and statistics of conference information were introduced. The reasons leading to success and continuity of this famous conference
were discussed.

烧结钐钴永磁体裂纹产生及预防—刘海珍,陈志鹏,谭亮勋,徐德胜,郑兵,程慧华(杭州永磁集团,杭州311231)

摘要:在钐钴永磁体的大批量生产过程中,磁体经常出现明显裂缝和细微裂纹,导致磁体机械性能差,严重影响其应用。本文分析了裂纹的种类及产生原因,从降低生产过程中产生的内应力着手,提出了防止产生裂纹的改进工艺,取得良好效果。

Formation and Prevention of Cracksin Sintered SmCo Permanent Magnet—LIU Hai-zhen, CHEN Zhi-peng, TAN Liang-xun, XU De-sheng, ZHENG Bing, CHENG Hui-hua(Hangzhou Permanent Magnet Group, Hangzhou 311231, China)

Abstract:In the mass production of SmCo permanent magnets, cracks often appear, which will
cause the deterioration of mechanical behaviors and affect the application of the magnets. The formation and the causes of cracks were analyzed in this paper. An improved progress to prevent the
formation of the cracks was provided, based on the efforts to reduce the internal stress in the production process.

铝镍钴永磁材料磁参数测量不确定度评定—王子生,李冬云,吴琼,胡秀坤,肖小飞,雷国莉,葛洪良(中国计量学院材料科学与工程学院,杭州310018)

摘要:剩磁、矫顽力、内禀矫顽力和最大磁能积是永磁材料最基本的磁性能参数,是反映永磁材料磁性能的重要指标。通过测量这些磁性能参数可以辨别永磁材料的优劣,指导选材和制订生产工艺。为了提高测量的准确性,有必要对影响测量的因素以及测量结果的不确定度进行分析和评定。本文采用国标GB/ 3217—1992《永磁(硬磁)材料磁性试验方法》规定的测量方法测量了铝镍钴永磁材料的磁性能参数,并按照技术规范JJF 1059—1999《测量不确定度评定与表示》规定的不确定度评定和表示方法,分析计算了铝镍钴永磁材料磁性能参数测量结果的不确定度。

Evaluation of Measurement Uncertainty for MagneticParameters of AlNiCo Permanent Magnetic Materials—WANG Zi-sheng, LI Dong-yun, WU Qiong, HU Xiu-kun,XIAO Xiao-fei, LEI Guo-li, GE Hong-liang(College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018, China)

Abstract:Remanence, coercivity, intrinsic coercivity and maximum magnetic energy product are
the basic magnetic parameters of permanent magnetic, materials, as well as the important indicators
to reflect the magnetic properties of permanent magnetic materials.The permanent magnetic
materials can be evaluated and identified by measuring their magnetic parameters, which guide the
selection and production process of permanent magnetic materials. In order to improve the measurement
accuracy, it is necessary to study the influence factors and evaluate the measurement uncertainty.
The magnetic parameters of AlNiCo permanent magnet magnetic were measured according
to the national standard GB/T 3217—1992, and the uncertainties of the results were analyzed and
calculated according to the JJF 1059—1999 technical specifications.

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